Prof: Good morning
everybody. We will be returning the exams
on Thursday. They’re being graded now and
we’ll return them to you on Thursday.
And I’ve always found,
I’ve found in the past, that having–once we finish the
midterm exam, and all of you have had a
chance to go back over the material,
mastered it, is the ideal time to begin to
talk about a selection of a paper topic,
a term paper topic. And I’m going to concentrate on
that particular issue in today’s class, the choice of a paper
topic. Right before Spring Break is
also a good time to begin thinking about this,
because there are a lucky few of you in here who are actually
going to Rome, for Spring Break,
and there are others that are heading home to California,
possibly near Malibu — might have a chance to go to the Getty
Museum, in Malibu, which is based on an
important villa, ancient Roman villa at
Herculaneum, as well as other travels that
may give you some ideas about potential paper topics.
And don’t underestimate just
the experience of architecture of any period,
in terms of inspiring you, as you go to whatever city
you’re headed toward, or even whatever small town
you’re headed toward. Looking at what’s around you
can be a stimulation to making a selection on a paper topic.
So I want to go over that with
you today. Also I’m going to show you some
magnificent parts of the Roman Empire, as a prelude to what
we’ll be doing when we get back after Spring Break.
And that is,
although we’ll spend–we’ll do one lecture on Hadrian and the
Pantheon, and Hadrian’s Villa at Tivoli,
and one on a colony in Italy, namely Ostia, the port of Rome.
From that point on we’ll make
our way around the rest of the Roman Empire.
We’ll go to North Africa,
we’ll go to Jordan. We’ll go to other parts of the
Middle East. We’ll go to France and Spain.
So we’ll be spending spring
going around the Roman Empire to some extraordinary spots.
And I think by introducing you
to some of those today, vis-à-vis the paper
topics, will get you in the mood,
I hope, for that kind of whirlwind tour that we’re going
to take in the second half of this semester.
Now I’d like to spend the rest
of the time again showing you some magnificent places,
giving you a sense of the three options for the paper topics,
and specific monuments and sites that I hope you’ll
consider as possibilities for your paper.
And again, as I mentioned,
it’s also a good chance for us to begin to experience the
provinces of the Roman Empire. Obviously I’ve chosen topics
that are ones that for the most part–
there’s one or two exceptions–but for the most
part are not topics that I’m going to be going over in class,
to give you an opportunity to look into a part of the world
that we may not cover in class, but also to be able to use what
you have learned about Roman buildings in general to decipher
buildings that you haven’t yet seen before.
The first of these–well the
first option; there are three options,
as I mentioned before– and Option 1 is a
straightforward research paper that is comparable,
obviously, to research papers that you’ve done,
not only in other Art History courses,
but in other History courses and other–
whatever courses, even science courses–
a straight research paper in which you have a topic that you
do a considerable amount of reading on,
focused reading, on that particular topic,
and I give you bibliography for all of these.
And, by the way,
all of these, pretty much all of these
bibliographical sources are on reserve, in the Art and
Architecture Library, for this course.
With a group this size,
obviously if a number of you choose the same topic,
I don’t want a situation and whoever–
the early bird catches the worm–whoever gets the book out
of Sterling has it and nobody else can get to it.
So I have put the books on
reserve for this course. I know that creates other
challenges, because you can’t take it home
with you, but–and it means you do need
to share– but it will mean that it will
be there for you, in the library.
In some instances there are
second copies at the University. So again, in that sense,
the early bird can catch the worm, if there is a second or
third copy that can be checked out.
So I do urge you,
if you have a pretty good sense of what it is that you may want
to work on, and want to pick up a book or
two before you leave for Spring Break,
the next couple of days would be the time to do that.
So the first topic–so under
Research Paper, again a straightforward
research paper in which you do some reading,
you do some looking, you think about this monument;
you think about its own special characteristics,
as well as where it fits into in the evolution of Roman
architecture. And one hopes,
of course, that you’ll do both synthetic —
once you’ve done your reading and your research,
that you will present this work of architecture synthetically.
But at the same time I hope
that you will have a thesis, that there will be something
that you will come up with on your own,
a major point, a major focus,
that you’ll want to have and that you’ll want to make.
And that you’ll want to use the
paper toward arguing some thesis of your own–
even though, for the most part,
it will be a synthesis of what you read,
what’s understood–and a placement of it.
Since you now know Rome itself
particularly well, if you choose a topic of a
building, or a group of buildings that
are outside Rome, the relationship of what’s
going on, on the periphery,
to what is going on in the center,
and the relationship of center to periphery.
So the first topic I give you
under Research Paper is the Roman city of Corinth,
which is in Greece. This would be a good paper
topic for the classicists among you;
and I know there are some. Anyone who’s into–who’s fairly
well steeped in Greek culture, as well as Roman culture and
civilization, who might want to look back at
a Greek city, a city that was already very
built up under the Greeks, as early as the Archaic Period.
This is a view,
for example, of the Greek Archaic Temple at
Corinth. So a Greek city,
a very well developed Greek city, that is eventually taken
over by the Romans, and the Romans remake it in the
Roman manner. They add typical Roman
buildings to it, create a kind of mini Rome,
in Greece. But it’s interesting to see the
way in which those new buildings blend with those that were built
there earlier. I also mention here not only
the Archaic Temple at Corinth, but also the so-called Isthmus
at Corinth. You might remember,
from our conversation about Julius Caesar and the
architecture that he built, that Julius Caesar was the one
who built a canal at the Isthmus of Corinth.
And the canal that is still
visible and used at Corinth today–
which you see an excellent view of on the left-hand side of the
screen– is essentially the same canal
that was built initially, or begun initially,
by Julius Caesar. So that gives you some sense of
a Roman addition to the scene. And I show you just one other
example. There are quite a number of
buildings preserved from Corinth, Roman buildings.
So one could do–for a paper
like this, one could do an overview of the
Roman city, all the pieces of the Roman
city, how the urban fabric worked,
or you could choose one or two buildings at Corinth,
at Roman Corinth, to concentrate on.
I show you, for example,
a view of the remains of the Roman Baths at Corinth.
And what’s interesting about
these– and you can pick this out on
your own already, just by looking at this one
view–what’s interesting about these is although they look back
to Roman bath architecture, in Italy, you can see that this
bath is made entirely of cut-stone construction,
which is quite different from either the small baths we saw at
Pompeii, the Stabian Baths or the Forum
Baths, or the later imperial baths —
the Baths of Titus, for example,
that we’ve already explored, where concrete construction was
used. Here stone was used.
Why was stone used?
Because there was a very long
tradition, already begun in Greece,
from the Archaic Period through the Classical Period to the
Hellenistic Period, of using stone for architecture.
And the architects,
in this particular part of the world,
because stone was so readily available–
and especially marble, but other kinds of stone as
well– so readily available,
and because the architects and designers in this part of the
world were so skilled at carving stone,
it was natural for them to use stone in their construction.
So we see that they are not
seduced by concrete domes and the like–
don’t use concrete in their architecture,
which you’re going to see, not only today but in the
future, is really an Italian phenomenon.
Concrete is picked up very
sparingly in the Roman provinces.
Stone construction tends to be
the norm, for the most part, and we see that at Corinth.
So the whole question of
building materials becomes very important.
But one would ask oneself,
if one looked at the Baths at Corinth for example,
what is the plan like? How similar is it to the small
baths that we saw at Pompeii? How similar is it to the
imperial bath building, that we saw the symmetrical and
axial–imperial bath building that we saw, for example,
under Titus. What kinds of materials was it
made of? What is the layout of rooms;
the men’s section, women’s section?
All the obvious questions that
you would want to put to this particular structure.
Also in the eastern part of the
Empire, the city of Ephesus, in what was ancient Asia Minor,
modern Turkey, on the western coast of Turkey.
An extraordinary place.
It too had a very long history,
not only historical and cultural and political,
but also in terms of its architecture;
built up already in the Greek period, just as Greece itself
was. And one of the most famous
temples at Ephesus was the Temple of Artemis,
at Ephesus. And I show you a coin of that
temple here. It was renowned worldwide,
and pilgrims came from all over the Hellenistic and Roman world,
to see it. And I show you a representation
on this coin of what the Temple of Artemis, in Ephesus,
looked like. And you can see here that it
had eight columns across the front.
They were Ionic columns;
at least at one point. It was rebuilt over a number of
years and that got changed over time.
But we see it here,
with its Ionic columns, with its pedimental decoration,
and with the columns spread out in the center,
in order to reveal the cult statue of Artemis.
And what a statue it was.
I show it to you, a copy of it.
A very well endowed Artemis,
as you can see here, on the left-hand side of the
screen. And there are tons and tons of
copies of these, and this is one of those that
gives us a very good sense of what this cult statue of
Artemis, in this famous temple,
looked like. And you can see that she’s had
a very long afterlife. It’s very tempting to use her
in all kinds of later ways. And as you can see in this
wonderful view of the Villa d’Este,
at Tivoli, in Italy–which is very close to Hadrian’s Villa at
Tivoli– a Renaissance area with lots of
fountains and so on, and you can see how they’ve
taken Artemis, or Diana of Ephesus,
and made her into a fountain. So she comes up in all kinds of
later contexts, as you can see.
With regard to the Roman city,
the city of–the Roman city of Ephesus is extremely well
preserved. It’s one of the best preserved
Roman cities today, up there with places like
Pompeii and Herculaneum. But, as you can see from two
buildings from Ephesus, it is very different from
either Pompeii or Herculaneum. It is essentially a marble
city, and it’s another example of the fact that in Greece and
in Asia Minor, marble construction and using
the traditional language of architecture,
as developed by the Greeks–columns and pediments
and walls and the roofs that they support–
remains the way of going about construction.
And I show you here,
for example, the very well-preserved Arch of
Augustus at Ephesus, which gives you the sense of
the kind of stone construction that was used for that.
And perhaps more interesting is
the shrine that I show you– the shrine or the temple–that
I show you here on the right, which is the Temple of Hadrian,
the emperor Hadrian, at Ephesus, that was put up in
honor of Hadrian. It’s a very small temple,
more a shrine. And what’s interesting about it
is again that it is made out of stone;
think of this in relationship to the–
we haven’t looked at it, but I know it’s a building you
all know well– the Pantheon in Rome,
which of course is one of the greatest concrete buildings the
Romans produced, or is the greatest concrete
building the Romans produced. If you compare that with its
very large scale, with its concrete construction,
to this, you get a very good sense of
the difference between Rome and Ephesus,
in the Hadrianic period. This is again a very small
building. You can see it’s made entirely
of stone. It has columns,
it has pilasters. It is very highly decorated;
in fact, almost overly ornate, with that decoration almost
dematerializing the architectural members.
And you can also see a motif
that we have seen before in painting,
but never before in built architecture,
and that is a straight lintel, and then the arcuation of the
lintel, and then the straight lintel
again; and that is housed in a
pediment, or least part of a pediment.
We can’t tell,
but you can see on both sides the pediment begins to rise,
but it’s not completed. Now whether it’s just broken
off, or whether it was what we would call a partial or broken
triangular pediment, we’re not absolutely certain.
My guess is it was a broken
triangular pediment. So we have this arcuated lintel
emerging from the broken triangular pediment.
We’re going to see that this
motif of straight, arcuated lintel is very popular
in the Hadrianic period, and even brought to Italy from
these experiments in the East. But again we saw this in
painting. We saw this in that painting
that was on the midterm, Cubiculum 16,
for example, already in paint.
Now we see it in built
architecture. But what we see in the eastern
part of the Empire is the way in which architects used the
traditional language of Greek architecture–
columns, pediments, lintels–and do something
entirely different with them. And it’s very different from
built architecture in Rome, of the same period.
Now the building that I
recommend, if you want to work on Ephesus
— there are other possibilities,
you could work on that Temple of Hadrian,
for example–but the one that I think has the richest
opportunities for an outstanding paper,
and an interesting paper as well, and an interesting
research adventure, is the Library of Celsus in
Ephesus. You’re students,
you spend a lot of time, I hope, in libraries,
and so you have a sense of Sterling and the way it works;
if you’re not always online, instead of going to the library
these days, which is a temptation that even
I fall into the trap of, on a fairly regular basis
but–using the Internet instead of taking that extra step to get
to the library. But I really urge you,
it’s very important for this topic.
You will not find–for these
papers, you will not find–you will find a lot of interesting
things on the Internet, and I really do urge you to use
it. But, at the same time,
you will find that you really do need to go to the library and
get out a variety of books to help you do a good job on this
paper. The Library of Celsus,
because of your general interest in libraries and
because of the fact that we haven’t been able to talk,
in this course, about libraries in the ancient
world, the most famous of which,
of course, was the library at Alexandria,
upon which all other ancient libraries appear to have tried–
appear to have measured themselves.
But we see lots of libraries in
Rome and around Italy and around the Empire;
Greek and Latin libraries. Libraries that are either part
of private villas sometimes– we’ll see that at Hadrian’s
Villa, for example, or in fora, like Trajan’s
Forum, which we’ll look at on Thursday.
But also large enterprises that
served a city, such as this one.
This is the Library of Celsus,
in Ephesus. It is called after Celsus,
because Celsus–a man by the name of Celsus,
C-e-l–s-u-s–was the patron of this particular library that
bears his name. He was the benefactor who
wanted to splash his own name on this library,
the purpose of the library being a library for everybody
who lived in Ephesus. We see a plan–these are both
from Ward-Perkins–a plan, and also a restored view,
of the interior. In the plan you see its inside.
It’s a rectangular space with a
niche, with columns in that niche;
columns around the perimeter of the room;
and then columns, as well as a staircase,
on the front of the structure. In this restored view you get a
better sense of what it would’ve looked like inside.
You see that niche here.
You can see now that it’s a
two-storied niche, with columns on two stories,
and with a semi-dome with coffers, at the top.
And then a series of tiers,
with rectangular storage areas here, with shelves,
where they placed those–remember,
there were scrolls, not books.
So they piled the scrolls on
these shelves, and then each of these
rectangular areas had a wooden door that would cover–
would close and keep those scrolls protected,
unless someone wanted to check them out,
or consult them, or whatever. We see it also had a flat roof
with a coffered ceiling. Now what’s also very
interesting about this library, and essentially unique,
is that Celsus not only wanted to give this as a benefaction to
his city, for the public good,
he decided he also wanted it to serve as his tomb.
Now I’ve told you that people
made strange choices vis-à-vis their last
resting places, and Celsus decided that he
wanted to be buried in his library.
So he provided–beneath that
central niche there was a burial chamber, and he was indeed
buried in his library. So this is not only a library,
it’s also a tomb, which again makes it a
particularly interesting topic, I believe.
It had fallen,
the building had fallen down, and about in the 1970s it was
still on the ground, in bits and pieces.
In more recent decades they
have taken those pieces– there were tons of them,
hundreds and hundreds of pieces–
and the authorities, the archaeological authorities,
have put this building back together.
But they’ve put it back
together with its own architectural members and so on.
And this is what you see today,
if you go to Ephesus. It’s an extraordinary structure.
You can see that it’s entirely
made out of marble. This is the façade of
the Library of Celsus; it’s entirely made out of
marble. We can see that it is
two-tiered, with columns supporting straight lintels,
down below, and then in the upper tier a combination of
arched– of arcuated pediments and
rectangular pediments up above, to give it some variety.
And you’ll also see something
very interesting here, which is although the architect
has used the traditional language of Greek architecture–
columns and pediments and the like,
which is very traditional, when you compare it to the
sorts of concrete buildings going up Rome–
but at the same time has injected motion into this
façade, by having a series of
projecting bays, receding bays,
projecting bay, receding bay,
creating a kind of undulating in-and-out effect,
across the façade. And then has done something
quite interesting, which is to place the columns
in the second tier, not immediately above those in
the lower tier, but straddling the spaces in
between them, above the receding bays rather
than the projecting bays, which injects still more motion
into the upper part of the structure,
in contrast to the lower part. And you can see also the–again
marble construction here, variegated marble used for the
columns; so very much a marble building.
And marble, very high quality
marble was more readily accessible in Greece and in Asia
Minor than anywhere else in the Roman world.
This is another wonderful view.
We’re standing below,
looking up from the first tier to the second tier of the
Library of Celsus. And as you look at this,
you probably are thinking: “Hey,
architectural cages at the top of Fourth Style Roman wall
painting.” We’ve seen this before,
but only in painting. We haven’t seen anything like
it. The closest we got is our look
at the Forum Transitorium, or the Forum of Nerva,
in Rome, where I showed you those columns that project out
of the wall, and have projecting
entablatures, and that kind of in-and-out
effect. I said that was the first
example in Rome of what we might call the “baroque”
trend in Roman architecture, where this motion is injected
into the façade. But we see this very naturally
in Asia Minor, over and over again.
We see it here.
So an example of something in
built architecture that we’ve seen earlier in painted
architecture, and which is going to have–as
we’ll see, I have an entire lecture on the
baroque architecture of Roman antiquity,
where we look at a series of buildings around the provinces
that all make use of traditional vocabulary,
but use it in a very vibrant way, as you can see here.
And then there are,
as you probably already noticed, statues that are placed
in the niches on the façade;
in this case of two women. The interesting question,
for anyone working on it, who are these?
Their names are given,
or they have inscriptions down below, identification,
in Greek. And you can also see,
with these details, how elaborate these were,
how they, just like in the shrine,
in the Temple of Hadrian, in Ephesus, the use of
decoration covers almost every available space and helps to not
only decorate or ornament, but dematerialize the
architecture elements. Something again we saw in
painting, Third Style Roman painting.
Here we see it–and on the Ara
Pacis; so we have seen it in
architecture–here we see it in architecture in the Western
Empire. Another very interesting city,
and issue, is in the Roman City of Gerasa, or Jerash,
in what is today Jordan. I show you–we will look at a
couple of buildings in Jordan, later in the term,
but not at this particular one. I show you a plan of what the
Roman City of Jerash looked like, and where the Roman
buildings were located. You can pick out all the
obvious components of a miniature Rome.
You see a hippodrome,
for example, over here, with its hairpin
shape. There was an Arch of Hadrian
over here. There were two theaters,
the North Theater over here, and there’s another theater
somewhere there, the South Theater,
up there. And you can see that they
conform to the shape of a typical Roman theater.
You also see there was a temple
to Artemis here as well. There are a couple of
tetrapylons. We haven’t seen tetrapylons in
Rome, and in fact the Romans didn’t build tetrapylons in the
city. A tetrapylon is a four-sided
arch that is made specifically to span two streets,
so that you can go through the arch.
And the arch is right over the
intersection of those two streets,
so that you can drive your cart, or walk,
right through the arch on either street,
either of the two streets. These tetrapylons were very
popular in the eastern part of the Empire.
We’ll see a number–we’ll see a
couple of them today, and others in the course of the
term, and you see that here. And for anybody interested,
both in Jerash and in tetrapylons,
I recommend–I’m not going over the specific references here,
but if you don’t–you probably didn’t bring this today,
but on the web portal you will find bibliography for each one
of these topics, and again, as I mentioned,
most of these are on reserve for the course.
in particular, the book by William MacDonald,
called The Architecture of the Roman Empire,
Volume 2, in which he focuses
specifically– anyone working on one of the
cities in the East, the eastern provinces,
will find this book very valuable.
Because he, in very poetic
language, he is able to conjure up the
way in which these cities were planned,
the way in which these buildings interacted with the
streets of the city, and the kind of vistas and
visual kind of views that were carefully orchestrated by the
designers of these cities, as well as the ways in which
they wanted to move people around those cities.
I think you’ll find that book
particularly valuable. Let me just go back for a
moment. I just want to show you that
plan one more time, because eventually I am going
to show you the Forum of Gerasa, which you see is located right
over here, and the shape of that forum is
particularly interesting, as we shall see.
Just a couple of buildings from
Gerasa. On the left-hand side of the
screen, the Arch of Hadrian, which you can see,
once again, stone construction here;
with large projecting columns; niches on the second story;
contrast between larger order and smaller order.
Here we again see projecting
columns with projecting entablature, but then a pediment
that is recessed. So again, this playing around
with the traditional language of architecture,
in a way the Greeks themselves would not have done.
Same happens up here.
You have tall projecting
columns with a triangular pediment,
but a triangular pediment that is made up of projecting wings
on either side, and then the central part of
the pediment is placed in depth. Here a view of the fountain,
or the nymphaeum, of the city of Gerasa,
where you can see again the use–
just as the Library of Celsus–the use of columns,
in this case sets of columns that are placed one on top of
the other, in two tiers.
There would’ve been a columnar
display here, probably–certainly also in two
stories, on the interior of this building.
Now this is the part of Gerasa
that I think is most interesting, and that is that it
has an oval forum; an oval forum,
a forum in an oval shape. Now we’ve seen ovals before,
for amphitheater architecture, the elliptical plan of an
amphitheater, but we have not seen–and we’ve
seen octagonal rooms, and we’ve seen round rooms–but
we have not seen the Romans in Italy use the oval for anything
other than amphitheater architecture.
And yet we see here this
wonderful forum in Gerasa that consists of an oval,
which is defined essentially by a series of columns on a curve.
So placing of columns,
placing of the traditional language of Greek architecture
along a curve, which we’ve seen before.
We saw that at Palestrina,
for example, but we see it here,
with this oval shape. And the other thing that you
see in this view, that is so interesting,
is the fact that many– most of the streets in the
cities in the eastern provinces are colonnaded streets,
are streets that have columns all along them.
We never, ever see this in
Italy. There is no ancient Roman town
in Italy that has a colonnaded street.
So we begin to see these
interesting differences between Rome and the provinces.
Why is this?
It’s interesting to ask
ourselves why this might be. I think again it probably has
to do with the fact that there was a long tradition,
in Greece and in Asia Minor, for Greek architecture:
Greek architecture made out of stone,
using columns, for the most part.
And that was something that
they were used to. They liked it,
and they continued it on. But they began to do it in a
different way. The Greeks would never have
built an oval meeting or marketplace, but here we see the
oval. So this combination of the idea
of the oval, probably from amphitheater
architecture, combined with the traditional
language, the traditional vocabulary,
of Greek marble architecture. Another extraordinary site is
the site of Palmyra, which is
in–P-a-l-m-y-r-a–which is in modern Syria.
And I show you a view of the
ancient remains of Palmyra, as they look today.
And you can immediately see
that Palmyra, just like Gerasa,
has colonnaded streets. Here’s the street.
You can see all of the columns
along it, as well as a series of large
buildings that are part of the Roman structures that were added
to the city of Palmyra, in Roman times.
Here’s an example of one.
This is a stone arch at
Palmyra, and you can see that the stone arch has been made
part of that colonnaded street. And the columns that lead up to
it create a very interesting vista toward the arch.
And then you can see–this is
very interesting, we also see this quite commonly
in the eastern part of the Empire–
not only do they have columns, but they place brackets on
those columns, that project out from them,
and those brackets were meant to hold honorific statuary:
so statues of some of the famous people of the city,
or magistrates or whatever, of the city of Roman Palmyra.
I mentioned a tetrapylon,
a four-sided arch that would span two streets.
We see one of those here,
a very well-preserved tetrapylon, in Palmyra.
And you see that once again
they’ve used the traditional language of architecture:
made out of stone, with columns supporting
straight lintels, that serve–and placed on stone
bases, as you can see here–that serve
as the four sides of that tetrapylon.
There would’ve been some roof
on top of this, of some sort;
or maybe not, I’ve forgotten whether that was
the– I’ve forgotten what people
think about this particular arch,
whether there was–some of them have roofs and some of them do
not. I don’t actually recall what
the case is with this one. But it gives you again a very
good idea of this tetrapylon arch that was so popular in the
eastern part of the Empire. But the building again in
Palmyra, that I think is by far the most
intriguing, and makes a perfect paper
topic–because one can try to decode which aspects of this are
Roman and which aspects of this are local,
and that’s essentially the name of the game when you try–
when you go out into the Roman provinces,
to try to determine what it is; in what ways has what’s going
on in the capital had impact on what’s happening in the
provinces, and what local traditions are
so strong that they continue to exist,
and even resurface, in some of these buildings?
It’s usually a coming together
of both of those elements– elements from Rome and local
elements– and the way in which those
co-exist and end up creating an entirely different architectural
phenomenon; which is what we see in this
building here. This is called the Temple of
Bel, B-e-l, at Palmyra, again in modern Syria.
And you say to yourself,
“Well who is Bel?” Well Bel is a god,
and that tells you something already.
Bel is a local god.
So this is not a temple to
Jupiter or to Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva.
This is a temple to Bel.
So that already tells us
something about this structure, as it goes up in Rome,
that they are– as it goes up in Palmyra,
during Roman times, that they are interested in
commemorating and honoring a local god.
If we look at the plan–and
maybe you can help me here with this–
if we look at the plan, and we think back to what we
know of typical Greek, Etruscan, and Roman temple
architecture, we should be struck by this
plan. What is it that strikes us?
What elements strike us about
this particular plan? Anyone? Yes?
Student: The porch goes
all the way around. Prof: The porch,
the staircase? The podium you mean?
Student: The podium.
Prof: The podium.
The podium goes all the way
around, and the columns go all the way
around, and–you can see in this
restored view– the staircase goes all the way
around. So the podium,
the staircase and the columns–which are freestanding,
as you can see here–go all the way around.
So that is characteristic of
what kind of temple architecture?
Greek: Greek temple
architecture. However, what else do we see
that’s curious? This is not entirely a Greek
temple type, it’s–yes? Student: The side
entrance into the>
Prof: The cella.
Student: The cella.
Prof: The cella is here.
We have a single cella.
We have a staircase,
an additional staircase, on one side,
which leads into the cella, from the side;
not from the end, as we usually see.
You usually enter from one end,
one short end, and you have the apse,
or the place where the god’s statue was kept,
on the other side. But here we see a staircase
that’s placed in the center– and it isn’t even quite in the
center, it’s actually slightly
off-center–on one of the long sides of the temple,
which we have never seen before. So we have this interesting
location of the other staircase, but also this combination of a
staircase that goes all the way around,
in the Greek manner, but then a kind of
façade-orientation, by the placement of an
additional staircase on one side of the monument.
So a very schizophrenic
building, in that regard. And the list goes on and on.
Let’s look at the restored view.
What do we see here that’s
We have tall columns,
with capitals. Look at the doorway.
Can you see?
I don’t know how clear it is to
you, from where you sit. What’s happening above the
doorway? We have additional–we have the
upper part of the column and the capital, truncated,
placed on top of the doorway. That’s strange.
How are we meant to read that
exactly? We’ve never seen that before.
And look at the top.
We have crenulations on the top
of the monument. And at the very top we have
some kind of a deck up there, that may have been used for
something having to do with the worship of Bel.
So one asks–so we see this
interesting combination of the influence of Greek temple
architecture, Roman temple architecture,
and local practice. And so one would want to ask
oneself, or one would try to find out
what one could, about the worship of Bel,
and about whether there were any earlier temples of Bel here,
and whether any of these features have to do with local
practice. The building still stands,
or part of it, and you can see it here.
Here you see that doorway that
we were looking at just before, some of the columns,
and you can see the kind of very nice honey-colored stone,
out of which the Temple of Bel was made.
Another terrific topic–and for
anybody who lives on the West Coast and is going home to the
LA area for break. You probably have already been
to the Getty Museum. You can go again.
But if you have never been,
it’s an extraordinary–this would be a perfect time to go.
The Villa of the Papyri in
Herculaneum, a villa comparable to some of
the villas that we’ve looked at this semester,
whether it’s Boscotrecase, or the Villa Jovis on Capri,
a very important villa in Campania,
of the early Roman period. The Villa of the Papyri is
so-called because of papyrus fragments that were found there.
The owner of this particular
villa had his own library–we’re back to libraries again.
And by the way,
on the bibliography, there’s a particularly good
book by Lionel Casson, C-a-s-s-o-n,
on the libraries of the ancient world,
that anybody who works either on Ephesus or this will probably
want to take a look at. He has his own library here,
and there were scrolls from that library,
especially from one specific author,
that were found there, and it is because of those
papyrus fragments that the villa got its name,
the Villa of the Papyri, in Herculaneum.
were done some time ago of this villa.
A plan was drawn of the villa
at that particular time, but the excavators found that
noxious gasses were starting to be emitted from the ground,
and there was a great–it was a health hazard.
And so after they unearthed it,
after they drew it, they covered it back over
again. And it’s only been in very
recent years that excavation has again begun on the site.
And I show you a couple of
views of the excavation that is currently underway,
that is once again revealing some of the original walls,
as well as some of the stucco and paintings of the original
villa. Now what’s particularly
interesting, and where the Getty Museum
comes in, is John Paul Getty,
when he designed his villa at Malibu–
which serves, of course, as a museum of
antiquities– when he was building that,
he used the Villa of the Papyri as a model,
and I mean as an exact model, he really duplicated quite
precisely the Villa of the Papyri.
This is the plan of the Villa
of the Papyri, as it was drawn,
when it was originally excavated.
And you can see–I guess of the
structures we looked at, it’s probably most like the
House of Loreius Tibertinus, where you’ll remember there’s a
small amount of space given to the house on two stories,
and most of it given to a large garden.
We see the same idea here,
where we have– and you can see it better over
here– where we have one area around a
court, that has living spaces on the
second story, and then the rest of the villa
is taken up, in this case,
by a huge, hugely long pool, that has statuary and the like
around it. Now John Paul Getty decided
again to use this Villa of Papyri as the model for the
Getty Villa. And this is actually the Getty
Villa that you’re looking at here, from the air:
a painting of the Getty Villa that you see from the air here.
And you can see that it is
almost exactly the same, in plan, as the actual Villa of
the Papyri. So going to the Getty
Villa–and this is, of course, a view of that long
pool at the Getty Villa– going to the Getty Villa is
like going back in time, to the Villa of the Papyri.
And I know a lot of people
think this is sort of Disneyland in Malibu, a Roman version of
Disneyland. Yes, to a certain extent.
But the truth of the matter is
you will get a better sense of what a Roman villa looked like,
in Roman antiquity, from going and looking at the
Getty Villa than you will get from going and looking at the
Villa of the Mysteries at Pompeii —
only because they have restored, and because it is in
such good condition and because they have added to it–
the kind of plants that would have been used there.
The paintings are in good shape.
They’ve placed statuary,
actual copies of the ancient statuary that would have been at
the Villa of the Papyri; because hundreds of statues
from the Villa of the Papyri have survived,
and they have–you can see them all at the Getty.
I’m going to show you a few
views of this, because I think it’s such an
interesting topic. I think one could write a very
interesting paper on the original villa,
as seen through the eyes of the Getty Museum.
For those of you who have
either been there, or have not been–or have never
been there, just a few views. The entranceway into the villa
today; one of the ramps.
They have just–if you saw this
a few years ago and haven’t been back,
they have made some additions in the last several years,
including their version of a theater–
and you can see it here–an ancient theater,
which you can see here, with the cavea and with
the cunei, or wedge-shaped sections of
seats. Two very good restaurants,
up above. And then this is a view,
standing up on the top of the cavea,
looking down toward the orchestra, toward the stage
building, which is of course part of the
Getty Villa itself. And you see also that it’s very
accurate– it looks a little too new–but
it’s very accurate, in that they have even used
here the typical columns with the white top and the red
bottom, that we saw so characteristic
of architecture in Pompeii, and also in Herculaneum.
A view of another pool,
with some famous copies of some famous bronze dancers from
Herculaneum; I’ll show you the originals in
a moment. This is the Getty’s version of
First Style Roman wall painting, along the walls,
as you can see here. It’s not quite the same,
but nonetheless it conjures up what one of these walls would’ve
looked like, if you had it all the way along your corridor.
And they have Second Style
Roman wall painting as well, and these of course based–they
looked mostly at the villa, but when it came to the
paintings, they certainly used other models.
And if you walk around the
villa you’ll able to say: “Oh yes,
that comes from the–“. This is a very Ara Pacis like
motif, with the garland and the columns and so on here — so
Second Style wall painting, in these particular cases.
Here’s another example of
Second Style wall painting at the Getty,
where they have wonderfully incorporated the door and two of
the windows, into this Second Style scheme,
as you can see here. And here we’re dealing with an
atrium, in the Getty Museum,
which is based, I think, on a building that I’m
sure you all know and learned for the exam,
which is which house, the atrium of which house?
Student: The Vettii.
do you think Vettii? What about this second story up
here? Student: Samnite.
Prof: Samnite, Samnite;
the Samnite House, with its second story in the
loggia, and then with its impluvium and its
compluvium. This is really good stuff.
And then here,
here you see a view of one of the pools, looking back through
the doors. They would’ve had the wooden
door jambs. We saw those in Herculaneum,
preserved. Through that,
to the pool, with the dancing women.
And then at the very end you
see a fountain that is based exactly on the large fountain–I
showed it to you earlier this term–at Pompeii.
And here this whole concept of
vista, panorama, from one part of the
house to another, taking advantage of light
streaming through the compluvium,
onto the pool, reflections in that pool,
statuary. This really conjures up,
as I said, better than anything I can show you,
what an ancient Roman villa actually looked like.
There are rooms like this at
the Getty, with marble incrustation,
that is very much like both marble incrustation we’ve seen,
and also like First Style Roman wall painting.
Areas like this,
where you can see again columns surrounding a garden,
with rooms on the second story; paintings, First Style
paintings on the wall; statuary in the center.
And all of this,
again, based on the actual statuary that was found;
a great–a huge collection of statues that this particular
owner had, that are now on view in the
Archaeological Museum in Naples, were copied for this here.
And then just another view
showing that they too, at the Getty Villa at Malibu,
were very cognizant of the siting of the structure,
placing it on a cliff, so that you can have a
beautiful panorama down from there: very much in line with
the way the Romans sited their buildings.
And then just quickly,
just to give you a sense of how compelling some of the sculpture
is from here. These are the originals.
This is the head of an original
athlete or gladiatorial figure from Herculaneum.
You can see how vivid it is,
especially–it’s done in bronze–but especially with the
inlaid eyes, that were customary for statues of this type.
This has got to be the best
hair in Roman Art. I love this one.
It’s a fantastically dramatic
photo of this particular head that also comes from the Villa
of the Papyri. And here are dancing ladies.
These are the original versions
of the dancing women that would have surrounded a pool in the
actual villa at Herculaneum, extremely well preserved,
and in every possible posture, as you can see here.
If villa architecture is your
thing, but you’re not interested in
the Getty or in Herculaneum, but are an Anglophile and want
to do something in England, I’ve got two topics,
two British topics. We’re not going to look at
Roman Art in Britain. So for any of you who are
particularly interested in art in the British Isles,
this might be a good topic for you.
I have both a villa and a bath.
This is the Roman Villa at
Fishbourne, in Sussex, England.
It’s a model of what that villa
would’ve looked like. And you can see that it has a
lot in common with the Templum Pacis in Rome,
with its great rectangular space and one of the buildings
pushed back against it. But one of the questions one
would ask for this, as for any buildings that were
done somewhere other than Rome: What is based,
and how close is this to what’s going on in Rome,
contemporaneously? And what is different?
What has to do with local
practice? If one visits the Fishbourne
Villa today, you can still see the mosaic floors that are well
preserved here. And you can also–here’s a
detail of one of them, which is touted as the oldest
to be seen, the earliest to be seen
anywhere in Britain, as you can see from the label.
And you can even see at the
Fishbourne Villa, for example,
a private bath, with the hypocaust.
So clearly the impact of Rome
is clear here. And they even have such
elements preserved as these roof tiles that you can see here,
on the right-hand side. Another British topic is the
Roman Bath at Bath, Aquae Sulis,
now in Avon, England.
This is a view of the
magnificent city of Bath itself, as it looks today.
And here’s a view of part of
what is preserved of the Roman Bath at Bath;
the water as green as the Tiber, as you can see in this
view. But this is part of the bath
structure, and again what one would ask
oneself is– and there are,
there’s enough there, that plans of what this bath
would’ve looked like exist– and one would ask oneself,
“What is this– how does this compare to baths
that we saw in Italy? What is it–how does it compare
to the bath at Pompeii, the Forum Baths or the Stabian
Baths, to the imperial bath architecture of Titus?
Are there similar kinds of
rooms? What is the construction
technique? Who was this used for?
Who did this belong to?
Who put this up?
And what part did it play in
the social and cultural environment of the city of Aquae
Sulis in ancient Roman times? Another view of that,
where you can see some of the stone construction.
And then, once again,
a very well-preserved hypocaust at the bath at Bath,
as well as a very interesting brick arch, that you can see
here. So the whole question of
technology. What kind of technology is used
in buildings like this is an intriguing question.
Another great topic,
if you want to make your way to the Middle East,
to Masada. This is the famous cliff at
Masada. I don’t know how many of you
have climbed. How many of you have climbed
Masada? Anyone climbed Masada?
A couple of you.
Did you go on the Snake Path?
Prof: See you’re so–I
didn’t go on the–and I was there a long time ago.
So I should’ve gone on the
Snake Path, but I didn’t. I went on the cable car.
So here–this is what you do
when you go and you take the easy way out.
You take the cable car up.
But you can get some good
pictures of other cable cars, as well as of the mountain,
as you make your way. But the thing to do is
definitely to take the Snake Path up to the top of the peak
of Masada, which is steeped in history, as we know.
The particular aspect that
would be at issue here would be to look at the Herod’s Palace,
the great Herod, about whom much is known —
a very interesting historical character,
who was around in the first century B.C.,
the time of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra and so on.
His palace at Masada,
which was built on the top of the peak, is particularly
interesting. Given its date,
it’s roughly contemporary to the sorts of things we saw going
on in Italy, at Palestrina,
and at Tivoli the placement of–
well in that case, the pouring of concrete on a
tiered hillside; in this case use of different
materials, as you can see here. But two views of what the
Palace of Herod on Masada would have looked like.
Again, a tiered structure,
multi-tiered structure, roughly three tiers.
So the question here is,
what did he have in mind? Why did he put it here?
Why did he choose to represent
it as a kind of cascading structure, from top to bottom?
How does it compare to
Palestrina and Tivoli? What is it made of;
is it made of concrete or is it made of something else?
And why in each instance?
What kind of architectural
elements are used in this particular case?
And if I show you a couple of
details, you will see that Rome is not
too far away, in the sense that once again we
see a hypocaust system being used to heat the floor of this
particular room, in Herod’s Palace.
Was this a bath or was this
something else? Remember, we saw the hypocaust
also used to heat the floor of Domitian’s dining room,
in his palace, in Rome.
And then over here,
look–wall painting: very similar to what we see in
Italy, at roughly the same time. This is again B.C.,
so we’re talking about First and especially Second Style
Roman wall painting, or the transition between First
and Second Style Roman wall painting.
Tombs, we’ve seen tombs are
particularly interesting as a topic,
because they’re so varied, and have so much to do with the
particular patrons who commissioned them.
I showed you fleetingly the two
tomb streets at Pompeii, the Via dei Sepolcri and the
Via Nucera, and I told you that we would
concentrate instead on tombs in Rome.
But they make a very
interesting paper topic, for someone who’d like to think
further about Pompeii, and to think about the variety
of tomb architecture in Pompeii. That varies from house–tombs
that look like houses, to tombs that have columns in
the second story, with statues interspersed among
them, to tombs that again have a
niche in the center, with statuary–unfortunately
headless here– but preserved inscriptions.
So if you want to get into who
these people were, what we know about them,
a kind of cultural study, you could do that.
And this is my favorite tomb on
the Via Nucera in Pompeii, because it should remind you of
something we saw earlier when we looked at Roman tomb
architecture. What was that?
Prof: The columbarium,
the columbarium, the Vigna Codini.
But you’ll remember that scheme
of placing niches on a wall was for subterranean tomb
architecture in Rome. And here we see–it’s just a
great idea. They took the idea of the
columbarium and they slapped it on the front,
on the façade of a tomb. So you see two tiers here of
niches. Same kind of portraits that we
saw, or urns that we saw, in the Vigna Codini
columbarium, brought above ground.
Same kind of inscriptions in
front of each of them, and made into the
façade, this very interesting
façade of a tomb, on the Via Nucera in Pompeii.
Residential architecture in the
Roman provinces. The houses in France at a place
called Vaison-la-Romaine; Vasio Vocontiorum in antiquity.
The French tout this as the
French Pompeii. It is far from the French
Pompeii, unfortunately, because it doesn’t have all of
those public buildings. It doesn’t have an amphitheater
or a theater or an odeon or a so on and so forth.
But it does have some
interesting houses. The houses are not as well
preserved as those in Pompeii. But it’s interesting to look at
them. This is a model of one of them,
showing the same sort of elements that we’ve seen in
Italy: the peristyle– this is the Hellenized
domus type– the peristyle court over here.
The compluvium of the
atrium over here. So it gives you–and then down
on this end, a colonnade with a pool in front of it.
So very similar to the kinds of
things that we saw in Pompeii. This is a view of some of the
ancient houses, as they look today,
and as they make up part of the modern town that surrounds them,
in Vaison-la-Romaine. You can see that they’re
not–they’re preserved, only the foundations
essentially are preserved. But enough of them are to give
us a very good sense of the plans, the architectural plans
of these. And it can be interesting to
look at these in connection to what we have from Pompeii,
and to see how they stack up, and to whether they are
different in any way, because of the fact that they
were put up in what was ancient Gaul and not in Italy.
And here a view of one of the
peristyle courts of one of those, as well as a mosaic.
And if you look at what remains
of the wall painting, you can see that that is
completely consistent with what’s going on in Italy at the
same time. Option 2 I’m not going to go
into in any detail, but you’ll see when you look on
the website for Option 2; that that’s called “Select
a Building, Select a Theme.”
If there is nothing here that
you liked, but you do want to do a
research paper, and there is some building that
you’ve seen on your travels, that we haven’t talked about in
this course, or even a building that we have
talked about in this course, but talked about in a few
minutes time, that you would like to write a
paper on, for some reason,
you may do that; and you would do it in the same
way that you do the first one. It would be a research paper.
You’d do–you will need to get
permission from me, for which one you choose.
You can do this either directly
to me, by email, or via the teaching fellows;
you can go to them and they will likely be able to be my
surrogate, if the idea is good. And if they have any concerns,
they will let me know and we’ll talk about it,
and we’ll let you know. It would only be–the reason I
want you to come to us is just because if we think that there’s
absolutely no– there’s nothing to read on it,
it’s going to be very hard for you to do,
we want to alert you to that. We want to make sure you choose
something where there’s a lot to think about and a lot to do that
will be a fruitful experience for you.
So that’s Option 2.
And then Option 3 is by
far–oh, I forgot one, I’m sorry.
the last topic under Number 1, the Tower Tombs at Palmyra;
we already talked about Palmyra in Syria.
You see that these tombs here
are very distinctive, these tall tower-like tombs,
which is why they’re called tower tombs.
Here’s one of them here,
made out of local stone, very stark, usually with a
niche in the center, that sometimes has a
representation of a deceased member of the family lying on a
bed. And here the interior of one of
these: very ornate; a coffered ceiling with
paintings, with portrait paintings in the top;
and then a series of niches where you see either single
portraits or group portraits of members of the same family,
sort of like what we saw on the outside of tombs on the Via
Appia, in this case on the inside of
tombs. This would be an interesting
topic for someone who would also like to use,
to go actually look at something at the Yale Art
Gallery, because we have some of the
portraits that come from these Palmyrene tombs in the Yale Art
Gallery. I show you one example of one
of those here. The last topic,
my favorite by far, and I really urge–this is a
tremendous amount of fun– so I really urge as many of you
as possible, who would like to be truly
creative, to choose this topic.
It’s “Design Your Own
Roman City.” You’re an architect,
city planner, you’re competing for the major
commission of your lifetime. I’ll let you read the rest of
that on the website. A colony of 10,000 people.
You can build this anywhere in
the Roman world that you want. So if there’s a particular
place you’ve enjoyed vacationing and you want to put it there,
because you know that place well, that’s fine.
And you can almost do anything
that you want to do. You can be as creative and zany
as you want to be, as you do this.
The only thing that I ask–and
you do need to do a paper along with this as well,
which is a paper that you’ll see from the–
so there need to be drawings, which are either hand drawn or
computer generated. That would usually include the
city plan itself–although it doesn’t have to–and a selection
of buildings. So it’s going to take you some
time to do. Obviously if you’re skilled at
drawing, or you’re an Architecture major,
you’re going to be able to do this more readily than someone
else. But I just want to urge those
who don’t–we had one project basically with stick figures one
time that was really fantastic. So even if your drawing skills
are not great, it’s the ideas.
Will we be impressed by great
drawings? You bet we will.
But I don’t want to discourage
anyone for whom drawing is not your forte,
because I think it’s really the ideas that count,
the creativity that counts here. But you can choose any
location–oh, I mentioned that there’s a
paper that has to describe the colony,
the reason for its construction,
giving its name– and again, be very creative
here–its date, its location:
Italy or the provinces. You can pretty much put
anything you want in these cities, but in that paper you
have to explain why. For example,
if you were to build a town in Asia Minor,
and it were to be filled with concrete buildings–
which none of these towns were–you have to explain why
this particular town is filled with concrete buildings.
And you can come up with as
crazy an explanation of that as possible;
in fact, the crazier the better. But you need to explain
something like that, so that we understand that you
know there was no concrete architecture in this part of the
world, but this particular town is
special because of the following reasons.
So I think you can see how your
creative juices can flow. I just want to show you very
quickly, in the few, five or six minutes
that remain, a series of these that were
done by students over time, just to serve as a–I hope they
won’t be intimidating– but rather to serve as an
inspiration. There are a couple of them
along the way that were done by students of Architecture,
that are particularly good in terms of the drawings.
But others you’ll see are quite
simple, and I want to show you to not be intimidated by this
particular topic. This is a wonderful city that
someone created on a harbor. You can see the docks.
You can also see the Port
Authority that has been added here, as well as the warehouses.
There’s some misspellings,
like cenaculae over here;
Livian Baths, I guess after Livia.
But look at this wonderful
forum where we have a temple pushed up against one of the
back walls. For some reason there’s a
tetrapylon in the middle of the forum, which kind of works for
this street, but I’m not exactly sure where it goes,
here; but it’s an interesting motif.
And then this market,
this sort of interesting circular market that kind of
projects on one side, creating a very interesting
shape; gives you some idea.
And a very regular plan,
as you can see for this particular city.
This was done by a graduate
student actually, in the Architecture School;
very extraordinary drawings, and it was a huge plan.
But just to show you again how
creative it was, the City of Ultorium,
after Mars Ultor, of course.
And you can see some wonderful
motifs, and all of them identified here.
This large temple,
a tetrapylon, there’s always a fascination
with tetrapylons in this project;
some other structures over here, including a marketplace at
7. But I love, at 6, the curia;
you never see a round curia, but this is a round curia,
which is absolutely terrific, opening off the basilica,
which you see over here, which is very closely based on
basilican architecture of the Trajanic Period,
and into the Severan period. Some interesting wedge shaped
shops over here. So again, it gives you some
sense of what’s possible. This, not by an Architecture
student, but another one of these port cities that has–I
love this–the sunken theater; you can see the sunken theater
that goes right into the sea, over here, on this side,
but as well as the port. You can see this was a
Flavian–so again, you got to decide where you
want to put it, which period–the Flavian
period, so a Flavian port city. This, another one,
also I think from that same project, where you can see the
Flavian basilica; a Capitolium with a Temple to
Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva.
And then Titus is honored over
here, with his statue, and a couple of victory
statues, one on either side. Again, I think from the same
project, this is the city itself,
where you can see it has an amphitheater,
it has a basilica and a forum, and it also has a colonnaded
courtyard, a colonnaded street.
If you build a colonnaded
street in a town in Italy, you’ve got to explain why this
is the only colonnaded street in a town in Italy.
If you put it in the East,
it’s obvious. Same project I think again,
the–it should be the Thermae Titi and the Library.
But I love this because the
person has identified the stone. In the amphitheater here,
stone has been imported from all over the world,
from Syria and from Ephesus, to be used in this particular
structure. An arch–again I think also;
this was a very ambitious project–an arch from that same
project, with a victory at the top and an inscription.
And then this,
the victory gate, again with the amphitheater in
the background. This was something simpler but
interesting: a small fountain; composite capitals;
coffered, misspelled; apse; a philosopher pose of Titus;
scalloped pool, with a triple basin.
This one, very simple and very
derivative in a way; but I love this one anyway.
This house plan shows us that
the person was basing it on which house?
It was actually on the exam,
although you didn’t see the plan.
Prof: House of the
Mosaic Atrium, because remember up at the top,
the entranceway, the atrium and the oecus
at the far end, in the form of a basilica.
So a very derivative plan.
But I just love this touch;
just this touch did it for me, sticking those two palm trees
in the center of the peristyle court was great.
And I forget again exactly
where this town was, but it had something to do with
that particular– the kinds of flora and fauna of
that particular part of the world.
This was another wonderful one.
A big city plan;
a huge piece of oak tag, with the entire city,
a city of the Severan period, Septimius Severus,
with buildings honoring him and his son,
Caracalla, for example. But this one,
because Septimius Severus’ wife was particularly interested in
astrological signs and used to tell him each day what his day
was going to be like, based on those signs,
the student incorporated elements of the Mithraic
Mysteries, and those astrological signs,
as you can see here, in many of these buildings:
a Mithraic garden, and so on and so forth,
which was really wonderful. This was great.
This was someone who made a
book, and included in it was kind of a treasure map that
included a preamble to where this city was.
And interspersed within
this–and it was made to look very old, as if it was just
discovered by Harrison Ford himself.
And we see these wonderful
plans interspersed with the text.
Then this, a small simple
house, again with some wonderful wall paintings,
of I guess the Third Style. And this, my absolute favorite,
still to this day. This was done probably in the
early ’80s, when I began teaching a version
of this course in the early ’80s,
by a student who is Petrus Greenburgius,
Peter Greenberg, who presented his project in
the form of a scroll. He knew very well there were no
books at this time, there were scrolls.
And so he presented this long
scroll. I can’t even imagine how long
this text took him to write on this scroll,
but it was a long scroll and it came and it was tied up with a
nice ribbon and so on and so forth,
and you unfurled it and it had the text, all about his town.
He was the architect,
if I remember correctly, the designer,
and he was presenting his case to the emperor,
or to the empress, in my–you know,
So he was presenting his case
to me about this city that he wanted to build,
and was I going to give him permission to build it?
So interspersed with this text
were these wonderful drawings of what he had in mind.
So, I mean, there are so
many–this is one of many, many wonderful ones that I’ve
gotten. I hope this will be
inspirational to you. I can’t say,
“Have a great break” quite yet, because we have
class on Thursday. But I know you’re all looking
forward to it, and I hope that your travels
can in some way include– even if you’re just going to
the beach in Cancun– I hope it can include,
in some way, thinking about buildings and
about this project. Thank you.