Translator: Alessandro Veneri

Reviewer: Marco Caresia This is the pangolin of Eric Joisel.

It is an origami, it is folded by only one esagonal

sheet of paper, without any cut. Origami’s rules are easy: (Applause) you take a sheet of paper and fold it,

you don’t use any scissors or glue. Origami is an art – and it takes

a bit of courage to say it – because almost all

think that origami is simply… a child’s play. I will try to change your mind. Today origami is this: every model has its author,

this is a horse made by Roman Diaz… who is a veterinary capable to

capture the essence of animals. Instead Robert Lang

is one of the origami’s theorists. Among other things,

he formulated a theory… about how to design complex origami,

of which I will just tell you something. This is a model of mine,

a three-dimensional pram. Satoshi Kamiya is known for creating

very complex models like this wasp, while Giang Dinh

made simplicity his magic bullet: he works with wet cardboard, he sprinkles it

and he can obtain these plastic figures. Eric Joisel is an other author,

the pangolin’s author too, and he is a master

in creating also human figures and using the volume of the paper to create effects like, for example,

Harlequin’s legs. How have we reached this point? Let’s start from the simpliest thing:

the square base. It is a paper square. First you fold

the medians, then the diagonals, close it and you obtain this figure:

it is a square base and it has 4 flaps. No surprises, it comes from a square:

4 sides, 4 angles, 4 flaps. Folding a model by John Montroll, at a certain point,

you get your hands on this stuff, which seems a square base,

but has 5 flaps instead of 4. So you ask yourself, “But how, I started from a square:

where does the fifth flap come from?” The trick to understand this, to understand how it works,

is to reopen the sheet. So you reopen the sheet

and you will see that the author… didn’t do nothing but drawing

a pentagon inside the square… and hiding all the exceeding paper. So the message here is, “If you want to understand

how it works, reopen the model.” This is one of the scorpions

made by Robert Lang… it has a lot of tips. To understand how this runs,

it has to know how an umbrella works. So imagine:

a closed umbrella is the folded end, an open umbrella is the paper

which is needed to obtain that end. A bigger umbrella

will give a longer end. This is the same model,

the same scorpion but reopened. It has been folded

and then reopened, marking the position

of its different ends. Every point is a circle, an umbrella: that big umbrella, the blue one,

is for the tail, the red ones are the paws,

the green ones are the claws. Now we go back to our presentation. This is the figure you have just seen, and this map of the folds… is called technically ‘crease pattern’. This is the Lang original version,

where you can see all the work folds. Therefore the problem of projecting

a complex origami turns into… the mathematic problem of having

the circles on the plane opportunely. It’s not only circles, you can see

that there are also some figures, they are lightly out of sorts but

they would show some streams… which divide the points and can give

a topology to the model. Let’s take a step back in time:

there is as such geometry of origami, made of axioms and theorems. It is a more powerful geometry

than the ’ruler and compass‘ one, meaning that all the workable

constructions with ruler and compass… are also workable with origami, but origami can do other ones, such

dividing an angle into three equal parts. A small example of origami geometry: we start from this square,

we make these folds… and what we obtain

is this figure here. They are only three folds, but you can glimpse a big triangle,

which I state it is equilateral. It is equilateral because its sides… are three of the square’s sides,

so all they are equals, ok? And if it is an equilateral triangle

these are exactly 60 degrees, therefore I can find very easily

60 degrees from a square. An other example concerns… the division of a sheet in equal parts. As you can see,

the points on the diagonal are six… and so they divide that segment

into five equal parts. On the other diagonal

the division is in thirds, therefore, through very few folds,

which are that ones highlighted here, I can obtain

a division in fifths and thirds. Why do I need this for,

maybe we will discover it later. In origami, one of the best moves

is the twist. The twist is built

on a central polygon going around and some parallel folds… which spread out two by two

from the polygon. It is so called because

when you make this fold, the central polygon actually

makes a rotation. What is twist used for? The twist it is for creating

some roses like this. This one is built on a pentagonal twist, it is by Naomiki Sato. Or it is for creating

tessellations, like these here. Especially look that in the middle, which soon you will see in a new light. Tessellations can also be very complex, like this made by Alessandro Beber: this has some twists

with 12, 3, 4 and 6 sides. Twists are also used in technology: here the question

is that of a solar panel… which has to be locked up

in a rocket… or a shuttle, to be thrown

and, when it is in space, it has to be opened

with minimum effort and damage. This is the series of moves to be done. It is this. This is how it is thrown, then, once it is high, it opens. (Applause) This is a twist… and this is a tessellation of a twist,

it is the former beehive. So, as you can see,

each hexagonal stuff… can be opened. Therefore

these are related to each other. I go mad for motion origami,

which are these I’m showing you. This is a fractal: it means that I have

a row made of 12 external petals, a bit smaller one, which have the same shape

but different dimension. And this is a single paper sheet. (Applause) The surprising thing

is not only its opening, but its closing, because paper remembers. (Applause) I want to amaze you again

with a pair of motion models: this is called flexicube, it is made from a single paper strip… which composes 8 little hinged cubes, in order to have this continuous movement. Instead this is its father:

the double star flexicube, a model by Dave Brill. Although it is a flexicube also,

it is the only model not made of… a single paper sheet,

there are 64 fitted modules. It can go round also,

but at a certain point I can stop, I can open the trunk

and pull out the first star. But it is a double star felxicube, because there are two stars. (Applause) Here I let you imagine

how much geometry is inside here, but this is half cube and this an other

half cube: they are pulled together. But also this is half cube:

this is half cube, the star, and if I turn it,

it will become a box for stars, that is a box which exactly has

the space to contain a star inside. (Applause) Why would anyone make origami? There are a lot of reasons. Origami instigates manual skills,

fantasy and creativity, makes children like Maths. The reason why I fold origami… is because it is nice: it is magic,

the magic of transformation really. The ‘Center for diffusion of origami’

is a no-profit association… which gathers all Italian origamists

and also organise meetings. The meetings about origami

are hotbeds of ideas… where everyone brings his own models,

shows them, explains them

and makes them fold by others. In this way there is a fusion of ideas… that has also brought to meetings

about origami and teaching. Now we are organizing… the third meeting for next April. It will be a great chance,

for teachers and instructors… who wants to use origami… for their job, to get in touch

with different opportunities. I wanted to finish with Zsebe’s bear,

showing how it folds, but I don’t know if I still have time… Yes? Do I still have time? Claudio Ruatti: Take a minute! RG: I will take a minute then, here it is! I have already folded something

because otherwise I could not do it. Here one can already infer

a little structure: this will become a bear,

with head and tail. From the head one can obtain

the ears in some way, then the great thing

is the way you shape the head. Now here we need to zoom in

really to this part. So, first you fold up,

now I have exactly a rhombus. I fold up its face,

then I squash from the inside… and I close the top part,

which will become the bear’s hump. It is taking the shape of a bear,

you can see its face, but now the basic move:

it is an upstream fold here, followed by a downstream fold

placed right down, which make the bear’s face pop up. Sorry, it has come off a bit like that. (Applause) This is how the model should be. I have finished my presentation,

more or less. This is a model created for this occasion: it is a model which basically has a cut. What happens is that… one has a sheet of paper and folds it – as you can see,

the TED logo has been drawn. What happens is that if one just cut it, which you should not do with origami,

but if one makes a single cut here, he will separate the three letters

and obtain the figure you were seeing. (Applause) Thank you.

mi sono innamorato di quella rosa….

Grazie, mi hai ispirato!😍

Eccezionale, specie la teoria degli origami complessi, la geometria origami, il doppio flexicubo e l’origami frattale

I'm comfuzed

WOWOWOWOWOWOWOWWOW so difficultly….

Grazie, Roberto della magia realizzata con il farfalle. Manuela

Il frattale …

For me its not courage but need patience

Bellissimo!!!

8:58

I HAVE to fold these ones! But how can I find any way to do it?