Aerospace Academy: Paper Airplane Design

Aerospace Academy: Paper Airplane Design


the aerospace Academy is a co production
at the Fairfax network and the Smithsonian National Air and
Space Museum Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center [music] [music] [music] Hello and welcome to tje aerospace Academy today you are enrolled in the paper
airplane design lab using some simple materials like paper and binder clips you will test the
design a paper airplane by using the scientific method all this will take
place in 10 the cool its classrooms you’ll ever be in the Smithsonian’s
National Air and Space Museum Steven F Udvar-Hazy center which houses thousands
of amazing aviation and space artifacts museums
educators and residents post classes and field trips for
students on a regular basis so who better to learn from the one of
these experts today we’ll be learning from educator in residence tosin adetoro she guides us through
our exciting experiment now before we start there’s a couple things to watch for now
first in today’s lab our students will be using an activity
she and a paper airplane template in you can find the same materials online FCPS dot EDU slash Fairfax network so
while you watch or after the program you can recreate
the same experiment you see here today okay now number two sure to pay
attention to the key concepts that will appear on screen we’re gonna come in handy as you watch
our experiment and if you decide to perform the experiment in your own
laboratory okay let’s get started welcome to the
Academy [music] on our classroom is set an tos nominating
up back here with the students in as you ask questions I’ll do my best to get this microphone for them before the
answer you so go ahead and start class okay thanks Matt well today we’re going
to talk about balance and stability stegner gravity
and all you the scientific method in an experiment using paper plates so let’s start off
with balance what exactly is balance if you’re
younger brother sister want to ask you what is balance what would you say 40sec
arm found and like how you keep steady or
how thing started objects are equal equal keeping steady not falling over 50 50
all great way to explain balance a lot of sports use balance sports like soccer basketball football why would athletes use balance what do
you think anything to Ron K well law exactly money kicking throwing and just even walking you need balanced salt now
that we talked about balance let’s talk about something else
stability and that’s really important when we’re
talking about people airplanes so we’re going to look up here game we have three figures and I want
you guys to tell me which figure is the most stable how many people think a is the most evil
razor thin que no takers for a how many people think be is the most
people figure job okay so how many people think see is the most people
figure okay we have a few takers for C I’m gonna change this question around a
little bit at my place in object 22 the figures what’s up now we’re going
to see what happens and which one is the most stable figure K now we have the objects on their ask
you the same question again how many people think a is the most
stable figure resilience still no takers for a okay how many
people think be is the most evil Flickr oldest changes okay now how many people still think see is the
most people figure 1 but OK so wanna do with the many give
each object apart so we’re gonna see what happens so
we gonna put a give it a little close there we go now we’re gonna give be a little push awesome when you’re going to see a
little push K and now we notice that BS actually the
most stable figure and this is a great example a positive
negative in neutral stability partner stability is when you have an external force and
it pushes on something and it comes back to where it started
okay net instabilities when you give it a
little push any keeps moving away from where it started new possibility also moves away from
where it started but it keeps moving in its not really moving away are coming
towards where it started okay so a is negative stability be its partners
stability NC is neutral stability positive
stability is what we have in all the airplanes
that we get on the need to go when he had outside force to come back
to where it started but sometimes engineers need negative stability
stability like a when they’re using acrobatic planes
forced on plates Mac okay let’s take a short break from
the classroom to delve deeper into the concept of
stability student reporter Alan Dawson spoke with a pilot who uses negative stability as he pilots his
plane through aerial acrobatics learned John karate because it doesn’t at the National Air
and Space Museum and also a pilot in the plank second thanks for being with us it’s a
pleasure to be here early talking about aviation which is my passion how does stability in fact flight no stability is
important early on to be able to establish flight
the airplanes need to be stable enough to get into the air and get back again
without tumbling but then as pilots began to explore
aerobatic flight they took steps to make airplanes less
stable so they would perform aerobatic maneuvers was better for example phone in Lincoln
beachy who is known as the father of aerobatic
flight took a popular airplane oh the day and remove the whole
front end of the year play his idea was successful he was able to do a loop and then he became the most famous
aerobatic pilot the day I’ve heard about positive negative and
neutral stability but what’s the difference well basically positive
stability refers to an aircraft if it’s displaced from its path to tend to
return to that path that’s desirable negative stability
would be if an aircraft were displaced would keep on going in the direction
with this place them and that’s not desirable neutral
stability is where if an aircraft is this place it
will stay in debt displacement and thats what they strive
for in a fighter airplane so that the airplane will go exactly where the pilot puts it and not
tend to fix it or get worse so aviation really is your passion oh
yes i’ve got the greatest job in the world you ask
any pilot Lee was to be when he grows up when he stopped for an answer pilots
don’t have to go look well pilots might not have to grow up
but we do need to mature our understanding a paris-based concepts so let’s get back to our lesson Ellison
what’s next okay Matt by exact here and he’s
actually gonna show us something with center of gravity that sup what it’s crap for support system up for supporters down dirt exactly
gravity before the polls everything down to put everything towards a big object
so here we have a calm in a condescending pretty stable
announced right so what I’m gonna ask you to do it to take this call upside down to try
to balance it predicted you think you could do it yes all right
let’s try okay oh wow so what do you think that that
happened all the way to the top always at the top it’s heavy at the top
exactly what else about the sheep I’ll the bottom is very
small in this exactly it have a smaller bottom and
it’s actually have you on the top so this is important we talk about
centre-back center property you need it’s around a large where it’s
bigger and where it’s heavier so you have a center gravity to what do
you think that is time the way since the McGarry exactly it’s
actually different for boys and girls for boys it’s a little higher in for
girls it’s a little more setter property great so now we know
that the center of gravity is a natural force that must be considered when
designing airplanes but what about when you want to control
an airplane in flight well any pilot can tell you that when
it’s time to fly there are three things that affect the
plane’s path let’s talk about how the control
airplane well we do it through the three axes a flight first if we move in elevator on airplane it
makes the nose the plane pitch up in pitch down if I move a runner on
airplane it makes the nose the plane turn left
and turn right and if I make the ailerons go up and
down on the wing of a plane it makes the airplane role left or roll
right best way we controlled airplane those
are three axes a flight and that’s our connection aviation case you’re just joining us this is the aerospace Academy you were
coming to you from the National Air and Space Museum’s Stephen F love our house the center the
wonderful flying machines in this museum couldn’t get off the ground without
being balanced in stable which is why our students are using
these concepts to design their paper airplanes tolson
what’s next well that we’re gonna start talking
about the scientific method the first of what is the scientific
method and why do we use it think about the
scientific method exactly scientific method I something there the scientists years to make
experiencing excellent it is very specific steps that we use when we’re conducting an
experiment we’re going to use the scientific method today we build up
paper airplanes so let’s start off with that first step
the hypothesis the hypothesis is when you take an
educated guess at what you think is gonna happen so hypothesis states that if the binder
clip is placed in the blank a few supplies in the paper airplane will fly most
accurately through the target the fuselages the body of the plane the next step it actually the controlled
variable the controlled variable something that
the scientist is going to keep the same what can we keep the same our paper
airplanes were gonna keep the paper airplanes the
same by using a template so we’re all gonna pull together can use a template the next step is
called the independent variable the independent variable something that
we need to change and we can only change one thing what can we change in our paper
airplanes that does not affect the design on the paper airplane
and will affect the way that it flies what do you think the placement of the binder cool on the
from sewage to place another binder clip on the
piece like exactly the binder clip at the week to it so where we place a
binder clip it’s gonna change the weight distribution on our paper airplane so we’re going to
place a binder clip in the fact center and the back of the paper
airplane picked up the next step is the dependent variable the dependent variable is something that
we’re going to observe what we’re gonna observers were gonna take-up lever airplanes and we’re gonna
step by throwing it to a target however many we get through with it
being successful is more than a tally on the border with
any use that as our results then we move on to the next step which
is our conclusion the conclusion is the summary of all the
results so we’re going to take a result and we’re gonna complain that to our
hypothesis and see if it actually matters up does it have always liked the matchup no
not really because your hypothesis just needs to be proved or just put so now let’s go ahead and read our data sheets
write your name on it and you’re gonna guess what the
hypothesis is do you think it’s better in the front Center or the back what should I am
writing your hypothesis gonna go ahead and grab I templates and
we’re gonna fall using my instructions make sure we’re
all holding together not alright while the students fill out
the hypothesis section on their data sheets you can create your homeowner hypothesis
as well remember you can get the same activity
sheet and paper airplane template they were using you can find it on our website now
totally diss through the following directions in a minute and we’ll prepare
the runway for test flights but first let’s learn about the brothers
who realize that bicycles are similar to airplanes when it comes to Wilbur and Orville
Wright doctor tom Crouch pretty much knows everything as a curator he does lotsa reset right
book and is responsible for a bath collection airplanes and other important aviation
art he said most lines trace bare-knuckle beginnings
to the Wright brothers when they looked at the whole problem flying machine they recognize that it
really hit three-part you have to be able to bill
which means that would generate live that would get you into the air you
had to have a proposal system that would move you forward fast enough
to get into the air and once you with their you had to have
a way to control yourself the brothers in 1903 right liar the world first airplane it hardly link a football field but it was a
powered heavier-than-air highly controlled air they did it by
solving one technical problem at a time control was the one area nobody that given very much barbecue the Wright
brothers on the other hand or bicycle builders in
bicycle design and they said to themselves you know if
you like about riding a bicycle if you think about trying to explain it
to say a martian someone who’s never seen a bicycle what
you want me to roll down a hill on these two little thin rubber things
and I have the balance from side to side and their the scale the bars I have to
manipulate and all year there petals idea palm you know what sounds so
you have to be the world’s greatest Acrobat to ride this thing but the
Wright brothers new that once you learn how to ride a bike
you internalized it and it became automatic and the new the
the same thing through on an airplane so orville and
wilbur wright did test flights with him made hi collided sandy did any hot North
Carolina focusing on control it’s as if the brothers imagined flying
machine like flying by you’re flying along and
you’re struck by a win gas so this begins to happen what you want
to do is decrease the lip on this side and that means turn the wing tip down a
little bit to the air and on this side turned up a
little bit increase the live so you come right back
up like this the Wright brothers first self-made engineer you’ll see that for herbal is laying inside cradle goes around this yep and the control will work thing the lateral motion the ships’s hip from side to side and when he does that
people’s wire through the airplane that puts the twist in the wings right next to win you see the engine they built the engine themselves it only develops a bit
welcoming airports power not only did everything work but it
works in conjunction everything disconnect the machine is
almost organic Wright brothers were just superb
engineers after the first flight in 1903 Wright
brothers would return to their home in Dayton Ohio perfect their made that before you start
testing let me show you how to properly for the
paper airplane templates online for let’s pull together to make sure
that our control variable faith the thing first the start of what line number one
Peter in your paper upside down role torture line you can use a pencil helpful make sure your lines and I think West but just like a house now I number two will float back just like my number one infancy a paper
airplane starting KK much don’t like it right line number three in
the middle old artistic from one until and then we fall for back each person to have paper airplane
reporting for yeah that’s why our runway is clear we’ve received clearance from the
control tower in our test pilots from Navy elementary school in fairfax county
are ready to begin their flights thousand let’s go okay Matt so I’m gonna
be over here tallying results and the students are gonna have fun and
we are ready for round one where we have our binder clip in the front of the
paper airplane are you ready all right you are clear for takeoff I Press London go good job clear for
takeoff nice try clear for takeoff Ocala really close clear for takeoff all just a little higher mixer clear for
takeoff also close clear for takeoff good job you got another one clear for
takeoff nice try clear for takeoff tired very good job see if we can get
another one clear for takeoff nice try clear for takeoff oo nice try clear for takeoff it’s just a little
higher next time clear for takeoff well as they continue
this round right here clear they’re gonna keep me moving
things around and changing the variables but they’re gonna do a good job as we
continue this round but just keep upkeep observing here what’s happening
remove the clubs around to reach around and things get better
and better as we go keep an eye on the circumstances observe
how the planes flying try to nurse the speed the plane the lifter height at
which implies how smoothly glides through the air
these indicators will show which design is balanced and stable alright so now for it’s time for round
two are you ready to go okay ever take oh nice try let’s see if we can make it
this time clear for takeoff nice try ever take off all I was lonely holes clear for takeoff set a little higher
next time clear for takeoff were all nice try clear for takeoff let’s get this I’m clear for takeoff
haha nice try cleared for takeoff also close clear for takeoff old that looked like
it was going in clear for takeoff on nice try clear for takeoff good so I we got it during each round of
lights toes as collecting the data tracking how many flights make it
through the poster board our results with the prove or disprove the hypothesis nice try clear for takeoff cards just a little
more thrust next time clear for takeoff on that was close okay so now I don’t want ill timed
around three let’s go clear for takeoff home what
happened there cleared for takeoff I happen again clear for takeoff I think there’s something going on with
the back clear for takeoff nice yeah I know parents a call nope ever take off nice try clear for takeoff all something’s going on clear for takeoff picked up through the whole next time ever take
off clare is a call are nice try represented all nice try ever take off oo nice try president as we’ve gone through this experiment
step-by-step have you noticed other scientific method is driving the entire
process it’s a consistent method that even
professional scientists use to track data while testing in making out survey ships
this ensures that any new knowledge games accurate in
verifiable if done correctly one scientist should
be able to follow the same steps as another and come to a similar conclusion
speaking at conclusions looks like we’re done with round three of our test flight
unrated view our results tell someone you have on their the board
okay Matt now we r Diana with our testing and we have all
our results we’re gonna look at this we had a total of sixteen students test
their paper airplanes so for each flight PS sixty they would look at it in a frat we had a
total are 6 just successful flights in the center we had
two successful flights in the back we had zero successful
flights pretty sad so now let’s look at this and compare it to our hypothesis we take
our results for a conclusion we’re gonna summarizing
compared to our hypothesis our hypothesis with our educated guess
and it stated that if the binder clip is placed on the blanket refusal eyes the paper airplane or fly most
accurately through the target in here for us we have the front up the airplane so if
our binder clip is placed on the front of the peace allies in the paper airplane will fly most
accurate accurately through the target so let’s look at why this happens now with the binder clip in
the front %uh the paper airplane there’s a lot of
weight there star center of gravity remembers closest to what we have most
of our way it’s our way is centered in the front of
the plane we also have another armed force called
center-left center-left is always in the middle of art paper airplane center left
and center of gravity are not in the same location so it’s really not a balance playing but
look at the center so let’s look at this the center has the
binder clip in the middle source said no gravity and our
center-left are both located in the middle on the plane this is actually a better plane it’s a
more balanced plane now the back the binder clip in the back
we have a lot of weight in the back so now arson Obama needs
more to the back and that’s why I had that knows that kinda thing so look at
this we actually hypothesize that it would be in the front that’s what our hypothesis
said but it shows I mean in the center but it shows that
it’s in the front many people guests but the front would be the more stable
plane okay three people I people guess the center
would be more stable okay and actually the people
with the center scientifically alright even though I
didn’t show it how many people get the back would be the most stable no takers for the back okay so even know majority guess that the front
would be for the sector would be the more more
stable I didn’t show that why do you think ardayda for results did not show that it was more stable
anything %uh because I’m one a humans are doing the
experiment they’re not exactly perfect it a good human error exactly nobody’s
perfect so there is exactly what we call human error the way you saw it is not
the way but she’s gonna flowing so you can’t really control the way that you
throughout but looking at this science tells us
that the centre should be the most stable so now we’ve done our data we’ve done
our results we hypothesize what do you think Matt so while the kids
were having all the fun you are doing all the heavy lifting or
they’re having to keep track everything so we’ve got all this great day to but now when we do with it that’s a good
question so we look at all this data and a great way to show data its
actually graphic to get wanted you guys to come on up and help me back so we’re gonna go out
the front center and the back and they have a blue a green in a red pen right there some
night guide you towards graphic so for the front we had a total 6 successful flights so you can go all
the way up to 16 you gonna draw a bar graph awesome job great job so she went all
the way up to 6 inches she didn’t he made a bar graph next we’re gonna draw the center grass
and that’s gonna beats you great job and what the back we don’t really have
anything so its gonna say black so why is the bar
graph good too to show our data why do you think it’s
going to share data you could see big differences income here the difference between a number
successful flight in the front and a number in the center number in the back awesome
it’s a great way to look at things differently Mac great job guys not only have tell us in our students
proven their hypothesis is correct but they’d use the scientific method to
ensure accuracy with the knowledge from the results they
can design the best and most flight where the paper airplane possible hey we don’t take our word for it design
your own plane and you can be the test pilot a good
luck with your flights thanks for joining us and
congratulations you’ve passed this lab but the aerospace Academy for the Fairfax network I’m at betters well on on old day

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